Muhammad Iqbal

Iqbal in 1938 Sir Muhammad Iqbal (}}; 9 November 187721 April 1938) was a poet and politician from Punjab, British India (now in Pakistan), whose poetry in Urdu and Persian is considered to be among the greatest of the modern era, and whose vision of an independent state for the Muslims of British India was to inspire the creation of Pakistan. He is commonly referred to as Allama Iqbal (, ''Allama'' lit. ''Scholar''.)

After studying in England and Germany, Iqbal established a law practice, but concentrated primarily on writing scholarly works on politics, economics, history, philosophy and religion. He is best known for his poetic works, including ''Asrar-e-Khudi''—which brought a knighthood— ''Rumuz-e-Bekhudi'', and the ''Bang-e-Dara''. In Iran, where he is known as ''Iqbāl-e Lāhorī'' ( ''Iqbal of Lahore''), he is highly regarded for his Persian works.

Iqbal was a strong proponent of the political and spiritual revival of Islamic civilisation across the world, but specifically in India; a series of famous lectures he delivered to this effect were published as ''The Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam''. One of the most prominent leaders of the All India Muslim League, Iqbal encouraged the creation of a "state in northwestern India for Indian Muslims" in his 1930 presidential address. Iqbal encouraged and worked closely with Muhammad Ali Jinnah, and he is known as ''Muffakir-e-Pakistan'' ("The Thinker of Pakistan"), ''Shair-e-Mashriq'' ("The Poet of the East"), and ''Hakeem-ul-Ummat'' ("The Sage of Ummah"). He is officially recognised as the "national poet" in Pakistan. The anniversary of his birth ( – ''Yōm-e Welādat-e Muḥammad Iqbāl'') on 9 November is a holiday in Pakistan. Provided by Wikipedia
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by Iqbal, Muhammad, Šujāʿ Aḥmad
Published 1929