Muhammad Iqbal

Iqbal in 1938 Sir Muhammad Iqbal (}}; 9 November 187721 April 1938) was a South Asian Muslim writer, philosopher, and politician, whose poetry in the Urdu language is among the greatest of the twentieth century, and whose vision of a cultural and political ideal for the Muslims of British-ruled India was to animate the impulse for Pakistan. He is commonly referred to by the honorific Allama (from allāma|lit=very knowing, most learned}}).

Born and raised in Sialkot, Punjab in an ethnic Kashmiri Muslim family, Iqbal studied in Sialkot and Lahore, and thereafter in England and Germany. Although he established a law practice after returning, he concentrated primarily on writing scholarly works on politics, economics, history, philosophy, and religion. He is best known for his poetic works, including ''Asrar-e-Khudi'' – which brought a knighthood, ''Rumuz-e-Bekhudi'', and the ''Bang-e-Dara''. In Iran, where he is known as ''Iqbāl-e Lāhorī'' (''Iqbal of Lahore''), he is highly regarded for his Persian works.

Iqbal was a strong proponent of the political and spiritual revival of Islamic civilisation across the world, but in particular in South Asia; a series of lectures he delivered to this effect were published as ''The Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam''. A leader in the All India Muslim League, he envisioned—in his 1930 presidential address—a separate political framework for Muslims in British-ruled India. After the creation of Pakistan in 1947, he was named the national poet there. The anniversary of his birth () on 9 November was a public holiday in Pakistan. Provided by Wikipedia
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by Iqbal, Muhammad, Šujāʿ Aḥmad
Published 1929